Avatar 2 (2022) Release Info, Review & Trailer

Avatar 2 (2022)
Avatar 2 (2022)

Avatar 2, directed by James Cameron and produced by 20th Century Studios, is a forthcoming American epic science fiction film. Following Avatar, it is the second installment in Cameron’s Avatar franchise (2009).

Cameron is producing the film alongside Jon Landau, with Josh Friedman initially announced as Cameron’s co-writer; however, it was later revealed that Cameron, Friedman, Rick Jaffa, Amanda Silver, and Shane Salerno all participated in the writing process of all sequels before being credited with separate scripts, leaving the final writing credits unclear.

Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, Giovanni Ribisi, Joel David Moore, Dileep Rao, CCH Pounder, and Matt Gerald all reprise their roles from the first film, with Sigourney Weaver appearing in a new role. Kate Winslet, Cliff Curtis, Edie Falco, Brendan Cowell, Michelle Yeoh, Jemaine Clement, Oona Chaplin, Vin Diesel, and CJ Jones are among the new cast members.

Following the global success of the original film, Cameron announced the first two sequels in 2010, with Avatar 2 slated for a 2014 release. Cameron had indicated in 2006 that if Avatar was a success, he would like to produce sequels. However, the inclusion of three additional sequels, as well as the need to create new technology in order to film performance capture scenes underwater, which had never been done before, resulted in substantial delays, giving the crew more time to work on the screenplay, pre-production, and visual effects.

The film has been delayed eight times, the most recent on July 23, 2020; it is now scheduled to be released on December 16, 2022, with the next three sequels to be released on December 20, 2024, December 18, 2026, and December 22, 2028, respectively.

The film’s preliminary shooting began on August 15, 2017, in Manhattan Beach, California, and finished on September 25, 2017, in New Zealand, alongside Avatar 3; filming was completed in late September 2020, after more than three years of production.

Avatar 2 (2022)

Avatar 2 (2022) Synopsis

Jake Sully and Neytiri have started a family and are doing everything they can to keep it intact. When their old danger comes to finish what they started, they are compelled to leave their home and explore the many regions of Pandora.

Movie Info

  • Genre: Adventure, Sci-Fi, Action, Fantasy, Thriller
  • Original Language: English
  • Director: James Cameron
  • Producer: James Cameron, Jon Landau
  • Writer: James Cameron, Josh Friedman
  • Release Date (Theaters): Dec 16, 2022, Wide
  • Distributor: 20th Century Studios
  • Production Co: Twentieth Century Fox, Lightstorm Entertainment, TSG Entertainment
  • Country of origin: United States
  • Language: English
  • Filming locations: New Zealand
  • Production companies: 20th Century Studios, TSG Entertainment, Lightstorm Entertainment

Cast

Humans

  • Giovanni Ribisi as Parker Selfridge
  • Joel David Moore as Dr. Norm Spellman
  • Dileep Rao as Dr. Max Patel
  • Matt Gerald as Corporal Lyle Wainfleet
  • Jack Champion as Javier Socorro
  • Edie Falco as General Ardmore
  • Brendan Cowell as Captain Mick Scoresby
  • Michelle Yeoh as Dr. Karina Mogue
  • Jemaine Clement as Dr. Ian Garvin

Na’vi

  • Sam Worthington as Jake Sully
  • Zoe Saldana as Neytiri
  • CCH Pounder as Mo’at,
  • Cliff Curtis as Tonowari,
  • Jamie Flatters as Neteyam
  • Britain Dalton as Lo’ak
  • Trinity Bliss as Tuktirey
  • Bailey Bass as Tsireya
  • Filip Geljo as Aonung
  • Duane Evans as Rotxo
  • Kate Winslet as Ronal

Avatar 2 (2022)

Production

Cameron indicated in 2006 that if Avatar was a success, he intended to produce two sequels. In 2010, he stated that the film’s tremendous popularity had convinced him to do so. The sequels were supposed to come out in December 2014 and December 2015. He used various sequences from the original film into subsequent plot sequels.

Cameron intended to shoot the sequels in order and to start production “as soon as the novel is nailed down.” He claimed that the sequels would broaden the universe by investigating Polyphemus’ neighboring moons. The first installment would focus on Pandora’s seas, as well as more of the jungle. Using a depth submersible, he planned to gather video for this sequel near the Mariana Trench’s bottom. Cameron revealed in 2011 that he was only getting started on the ocean environment of Pandora and the other worlds that will be included in the tale. Although the plot will continue the environmental subject from the first film, it will be less “strident” because the film will focus on entertainment.

In December 2009, it was revealed that the Jake and Neytiri characters will be continued in the sequels. Cameron hinted that the humans will return as the story’s villains. Cameron said in 2011 that the sequels will be shot at a higher frame rate than the industry norm of 24 frames per second, in order to give them a more realistic feel. Cameron stated in 2013 that the sequels will be shot in New Zealand, with performance capture scheduled for 2014. A deal with the New Zealand government stipulated that at least one global premiere be hosted in Wellington and that at least NZ$500 million (about US$410 million at December 2013 exchange rates) be spent on production activities in the country, including live-action filming and visual effects. The New Zealand government stated that the baseline tax refund for filmmaking will be increased from 15% to 20%, with 25% available to foreign films in some circumstances and 40% for New Zealand movies in others (as defined by section 18 of the New Zealand Film Commission Act 1978).

Cameron originally hinted at a possible third installment in 2012, and it was confirmed the following year. Cameron planned to release Avatar 2 in 2015, however, later that year, filming was postponed for 2014, with the picture set to be released in December 2016, with two more sequels to follow in 2017 and 2018.

Avatar 2 (2022)

The sequels’ intended release dates were each pushed back by a year by 2015, with the first one set for December 2017; this was owing to the writing process, which Cameron described as “difficult.” The next month, Fox announced yet another postponement of the film’s release. The sequels were set to begin filming in New Zealand in April 2016 as of February 2016.

Cameron stated at CinemaCon in April 2016 that there will be four Avatar sequels, all of which will be shot at the same time and will be released in December 2018, 2020, 2022, and 2023, respectively. It was rumored in late October 2016 that Cameron will push for “glasses-free 3D” in the sequels, however, he later refuted these reports, saying that the technology would not be ready yet. Cameron said in March 2017 that Avatar 2 will not be released in 2018, as originally thought.

New release dates for Avatar 2, Avatar 3, Avatar 4, and Avatar 5 were revealed on April 27, 2017: December 18, 2020, for Avatar 2, December 17, 2021, for Avatar 3, December 20, 2024, for Avatar 4, and December 19, 2025, for Avatar 5. Dolby Vision will be used to distribute the movie.

Russell Carpenter, who worked with Cameron on True Lies and Titanic, and Aashrita Kamath, who will serve as art director on all four sequels, are among the new team members. Kirk Krack, the creator of Performance Freediving International, served as a free-diving instructor for the underwater sequences’ actors and crew.

When asked about the film’s and sequels’ delays, Cameron responded, ” “I don’t think they’re called delays.” We were hopeful that we would be able to get started right away once the scripts were completed. Isn’t it true that if you don’t have any scripts, you don’t have anything? Four years were spent writing the screenplays. You might call it a delay, but it isn’t really one because we’ve been clicking along flawlessly since the time we pressed the button to start making the videos [until now]. Because of the length of time, it took to create the system, pipeline, and other components, we’re performing very well. We weren’t squandering time; instead, we were investing it in technology development and design. Everything was designed once all of the texts were accepted. Every single character, beast, and place. In a strange sense, it worked in the film’s favor because the design team had extra time to develop… The majority of the performers, particularly the main characters, have read all four screenplays, so they know precisely what their character arcs are, where they’re heading, and how to modulate their arc now over the first two films.”

He was hopeful that the delays would not affect the films’ performance, comparing them to his commercially successful sequels Terminator 2: Judgment Day and Aliens, which were both released seven years after the original movie. Several of the animals from Avatar: Flight of Passage will appear in the film.

As a result of the announcement of the three upcoming Star Wars films due to be released respectively on December 16, 2022, December 20, 2024, and December 18, 2026, it was reported in May 2019 that the sequels’ release dates had been pushed back as much as two years, resulting in the release of Avatar 2 being pushed back to December 2021, while the three other sequels are due to be released respectively in December 2023, December 2025, and December 2027.

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the release date was moved back to December 16, 2022, in August 2020. The theatrical release has been postponed eight times in all.

Avatar 2 (2022)

Writing

Cameron indicated in 2012 that the sequels will be written as “independent tales with an overarching arc inclusive of the first picture,” with the second film ending with a clear resolution rather than a cliffhanger to the next film. Josh Friedman, Rick Jaffa, and Amanda Silver for the first, Shane Salerno for the second, and Josh Friedman for the third.  Cameron stated in April 2014 that he anticipated to finish the (then) three screenplays in six weeks and that all three sequels will be in production at the same time, with release dates ranging from December 2016 to 2018.

Although Friedman, Jaffa and Silver, and Salerno are each co-writing one sequel with him, he claimed that they initially collaborated on all three scripts: “I didn’t tell each writer which picture they’d be working on until the very last day. If I gave them their screenplays ahead of time, I knew they’d tune out whenever we talked about the other movie.” Cameron went on to say that they “laid out every beat of the plot overall three films so it all links as one, kind of, three-film saga,” a creative method inspired by his experiences in the Dark Angel writing room.

Because the scripting took longer than planned, Cameron had to push back the release of the films until 2015. He claimed in December 2015 that he was “in the midst of making a second run through all three scripts… Just fine-tuning. This is done concurrently with the design process. At this time, the design process is well-developed. We’ve been working on this project for approximately a year and a half. “Almost all of the characters, places, and animals are [set].”

Cameron stated on February 11, 2017, that he has finished writing all four sequels. He estimated that the screenplays took four years to write the total in a November 26 interview the same year.

“It will be a natural continuation of all the ideas, and the people, and the spiritual undercurrents,” Cameron said when comparing the sequels to the original. Basically, if you liked the first film, you’ll enjoy them, and if you didn’t, you’ll probably dislike them. If you liked it at the time but afterward stated you didn’t like it, you’ll probably enjoy these.”

Later, he likened the sequels to The Godfather franchise, referring to them as “a family tale that spans generations […] It’s a continuation of the same characters’ stories of what happens when soldiers who are prepared to commit suicide by leaping off cliffs on the backs of large orange Toruks grow up and have children of their own. The children are now the agents of change. It’s interesting.”

In a February 2019 interview, Cameron revealed that Tuk was eight years old and that the film would include a three-page argument scene between Jake and Neytiri, which would be seen through Tuk’s eyes: “There’s a three-page argument scene between Jake and Neytiri, a marital dispute, very, very critical to the storyline.” I ended up filming everything from the perspective of an 8-year-old hiding behind the building and peering in. After working with [Sam Worthington] on Avatar, I understood how to create the Jake character for the following four films’ emotional rollercoaster.”

Lang claimed in a December 2019 interview that his character was always supposed to return in the sequels, as Cameron told him “that Quaritch had a future” when filming the first film.

Casting

In January 2010, it was announced that Sam Worthington and Zoe Saldana have signed on to reprise their roles in the sequels. Despite the deaths of their characters, Cameron stated that Sigourney Weaver and Stephen Lang will return later that year. Cameron also indicated that Weaver’s character Grace Augustine will appear in all three sequels (the fourth was not planned at the time) and that she would be alive. Weaver, on the other hand, said in March 2015 that she will portray a new role in the next film. Michelle Rodriguez said in September 2015 that, unlike Weaver and Lang, whose characters perished in the first film, she will not return in Avatar 2.

In 2017, many new cast members were announced, including Joel David Moore, CCH Pounder, and Matt Gerald, all of whom were confirmed to return from the previous film. Oona Chaplin’s role, Varang, was characterized as “a powerful and energetic major character who spans the whole narrative of the sequels,” and Cliff Curtis as Tonowari, the head of the Na’vi reef people clan of Metkayina, were among the newly announced additions. Eiza González also tried out for the part of Charlie Chaplin.

On September 23, 2017, it was reported that Filip Geljo, a young actor, had been signed for an unspecified part. Cameron later stated that the child cast had been trained for six months to prepare for the underwater scenes filmed in performance capture and that they now could all hold their breath “in the two- to four-minute range”, even then-seven-year-old Trinity Bliss, and were now “all perfectly capable of acting underwater, very calmly while holding their breath”.

On September 27, seven child actors were confirmed as part of the main cast, including Geljo: Jamie Flatters, Britain Dalton, and Trinity Bliss as Jake and Neytiri’s children, Geljo, Bailey Bass, and Duane Evans Jr. as members of the Metkayina (along with Curtis), and Jack Champion as a human born on Pandora, the only one to perform in live-action.

On October 3, 2017, it was announced that Kate Winslet, who featured in James Cameron’s Titanic (1997), will be joining the cast of Avatar 2, as well as possible sequels. “Kate and I have been seeking for something to do together for 20 years, ever since our collaboration on Titanic, which was one of the most gratifying of my career,” Cameron said, revealing that her character’s name was Ronal.

Despite the fact that the nature of her persona was first unknown, the following month, Cameron revealed that Ronal was “part of the Sea People, the reef people,” referring to the Na’vi clan of Metkayina, making Avatar 2 Winslet’s first performance capture or motion capture role, which she was looking forward to; because she insisted on performing all of her character’s movements herself, she, like the child cast, had to learn free-diving for the film.

Cameron proposed the role to Winslet in July 2017 when he came to help her and fellow Titanic collaborator Leonardo DiCaprio at a fundraiser in France, and he sent her the scripts shortly after. Winslet, who had been notoriously hesitant about working with Cameron again because of the complicated situations he puts his actors in for their scenes, stated that Cameron proposed the role to her in July 2017 when he came to help her and fellow Titanic collaborator Leonardo DiCaprio at a fundraiser. She said her part was “very tiny in comparison to the extended production,” since she would only be filming for one month, but she was also “a crucial figure in the continuing tale.”

On October 13, 2017, it was revealed that Giovanni Ribisi would play Parker Selfridge in all four forthcoming Avatar films, reprising his role from the first film. Dileep Rao’s comeback as Dr. Max Patel was confirmed on January 25, 2018. Edie Falco, Brendan Cowell, and Michelle Yeoh joined the cast as live-action characters a year later. Vin Diesel revealed in early April 2019 that he will be joining the cast of the Avatar sequels, however, it was unclear which sequels he would be in.

Edward Norton said in October 2019 that he had turned down a role in Avatar 2 because he only wanted to play a Na’vi, which his suggested character was not. David Thewlis announced his involvement in the franchise in April 2018, indicating that he will appear in three of the four sequels, later revealing that his character was a Na’vi in January 2020. This led to Thewlis being widely touted as a member of the Avatar 2 cast; however, in June 2020, he confirmed that the claims were incorrect and that he would be a part of Avatar 3 through 5.

Avatar 2 (2022)

Filming

On August 15, 2017, Avatar 2 went into production and began preliminary filming, with Manhattan Beach, California, as the primary site. Principal photography began on September 25, 2017, at the same time as Avatar 3. Filming had to be pushed around to allow Sigourney Weaver to shoot a cameo appearance in the series eight finales of Doc Martin, as she subsequently confirmed in November.

On November 23, Cameron said that the crew had been testing underwater sequences in performance capture with the cast for the previous month and that they had successfully filmed the first of those scenes on November 14, which featured six of their seven key kid actors, including Trinity Bliss. “We’re receiving extremely good data, lovely character motion, and fantastic facial performance capture. We’ve very well broken the code,” he said. The testing will run until January 2018, he added “In our little test tank, we’re continuing working. In January, we will graduate to our large tank “… It was a “conversation scene,” since the protagonists spoke using “a type of sign language,” according to Cameron. Kate Winslet has “only a couple days” of filming remaining on April 30, 2018.

Saldana said in May 2018 that filming is “about halfway done” and that the crew is “about to conclude motion capture production on the [second and third] movies, and then they move right into pre-production for the live-action phase, which would shoot for six months in New Zealand.” On June 8, Saldana wrapped her sequences for both Avatar 2 and its sequel, while Cameron said that 130 days of performance capture had been shot around the same time. Cameron confirmed the completion of filming with the primary performance capture cast on November 14, 2018.

Avatar 2 (2022)

Live-action filming

Landau said in February 2019 that live-action filming on Avatar 2 and 3 will start in New Zealand in the spring of 2019. Later that month, Cameron revealed that they had “just wrapped for [the motion capture sections].” Now, it represents the overwhelming majority of the characters, as well as the vast bulk of the film[s]’ running length. But that bothersome live-action component will cost me five months of my life over the course of the two films.” Filming for the 2019 season ended on November 29 and will restart in New Zealand the following year.

In reaction to the COVID-19 epidemic, Landau stated on March 17, 2020, that filming of the Avatar sequel films in New Zealand had been postponed indefinitely. He also stated that the production will continue to be based in Los Angeles. Virtual production, on the other hand, proceeded in Manhattan Beach, California, while visual effects at Weta Digital in Wellington continued.

The New Zealand government-approved health and safety production procedures in early May, enabling filming to continue in the nation. Landau shared a photo of himself and Cameron on Instagram on June 1, 2020, indicating that they had returned to New Zealand to start filming. After arriving in New Zealand, Cameron and 55 other team members began a two-week government-supervised seclusion period in a Wellington hotel before returning to filming.

After arriving in New Zealand, Cameron and 55 other team members began a two-week government-supervised seclusion period in a Wellington hotel before returning to filming. This would make Avatar 2 and 3 the first big Hollywood blockbusters to restart filming following the pandemic’s postponement. Cameron started filming on June 16, 2020, and Landau shared a snapshot of his crew filming the production on Instagram.

Cameron stated in September 2020 that live-action filming in New Zealand had been completed, bringing the film’s production to a close after more than three years; he estimated Avatar 3 to be “95 percent” complete owing to live-action sections remaining to be filmed outside of New Zealand.

Avatar 2 (2022)

Music

Simon Franglen, who worked on the original film as a producer of both the soundtrack and the original song “I See You,” as well as arranger of the electronic music portions of the score, was rumored to be composing new songs for Avatar 2 and Avatar 3. However, no successor for the original film’s composer James Horner, who was previously believed to be engaged to provide music for the franchise until his death in a plane crash in June 2015, has been announced as of July 2021.

Marketing

Starting with Avatar 2, Steven Gould has been contracted to write four books based on the four Avatar sequels.

After numerous media sources reported on potential Avatar sequel names, including Avatar: The Way of Water for Avatar 2, Cameron stated that the titles were “among titles that are being considered, but no final choices have been made yet.”

Sequels

Avatar 2 is the first of four planned sequels to Avatar; on September 25, 2017, Avatar 3 began production in New Zealand alongside Avatar 2. Worthington, Saldana, Lang, Weaver, Pounder, Curtis, Ribisi, Moore, Rao, Gerald, and Chaplin from Avatar 2 have all been cast in Avatar 3. Despite the fact that the last two sequels have allegedly been approved, Cameron remarked in a November 2017 interview, “Let’s face it, if Avatar 2 and 3 don’t earn enough money, there won’t be a 4 and 5”. “They’re creating 2 and 3, they’re going to see if people go and see them, and then they’ll create 4 and 5,” Avatar 3 cast member David Thewlis subsequently confirmed in February 2018, saying, “They’re making 2 and 3, they’re going to see if people go and see them, and then they’ll make 4 and 5.”

Weaver, on the other hand, claimed in November 2018 that she was “busy doing Avatar 4 and 5,” which numerous media sites took as evidence that the last two sequels had begun production after the first two sequels had finished principal photography.

In January 2019, Disney CEO Bob Iger revealed that both Avatar 4 and Avatar 5 are in development but haven’t been formally greenlit, despite The Walt Disney Company’s proposed acquisition of 21st Century Fox. Iger may have been misunderstood, according to producer Landau in February 2019. He said that not only are Avatar 4 and 5 “not just [greenlit],” but that a third of Avatar 4 has already been shot.

Then let’s answer some questions!

Why has Avatar 2 taken so long?

According to Cameron, there are challenges in getting the plot to work for a three-part saga that one does not encounter while creating a single picture. Cameron also said that the three films were written at the same time to keep the production crew on pace.

Will Avatar 2 Come Out 2021?

When is Avatar 2 going to be released in theaters? To summarize a lengthy narrative, Avatar 2 will eventually be published on December 16, 2022, after being postponed from December 2021.

Is there a baby in Avatar 2?

Yep, the Avatar family has become a little larger. Avatar 2 will feature seven young cast members who will go to Pandora with James Cameron. Neteyam, the eldest kid, is played by Jamie Flatters, while Lo’ak is played by Britain Dalton, and Tuktirey is played by Trinity Bliss.

Avatar 2 (2022)

Is Avatar 2 the most expensive movie?

Even though it isn’t even close to the tenth most costly picture, the $1 billion budget for its four sequels makes it a candidate. The final cut of Avatar 2 hasn’t been published yet, but it’s clear that it’s going to be a very expensive picture to create.

Can Endgame beat Avatar 2?

It’s a childish question, but don’t worry, we’ll answer it. Avatar has recently surpassed Avengers: Endgame as the highest-grossing film of all time. Avatar is currently the highest-grossing film of all time on a global scale. It recently dethroned Avengers: Endgame to take the top spot.

Is Avatar still the highest-grossing movie?

Because of its re-release in China, the blockbuster film Avatar has reclaimed the title of the highest-grossing film of all time. The sci-fi epic opened in 2009 and held the worldwide movie office crown for a decade until Marvel’s Avengers: Endgame surpassed it in 2019.

Why is Avatar so popular?

Originally Asked: What makes the film Avatar so popular? Avatar’s success may be traced back to a few important reasons. First and foremost, it was a spectacular leap forward in 3D technology and effects, resulting in an unforgettable in-theater experience unlike anything seen in many years.

What is the highest-grossing movie of all time?

It’s Avatar 🙂

How tall are the avatars?

They’re ten feet tall.

Will Jake and Neytiri have a baby?

In the original Avatar, Jake and Neytiri do not have children, despite the fact that they end up together and have a love scene. Jake permanently transfers his mind into his Na’vi avatar at the end of the film, implying that the couple’s offspring will be 100 percent Na’vi rather than half Na’vi half-human.

How old is Jake Neytiri?

“Neytiri te Ckaha Mo’at’ite” is her name in the script. During Jake’s first night with the Omaticaya clan, she offers her entire name to him in both the extended re-release and the Extended Collector’s Edition. Neytiri is also said to be around 18 years old in the screenplay.

Do avatars have private parts?

The Na’vi are a fictitious race with no genitals. If that’s a little too simple for you, here are two other options. Weta’s computers did not draw Na’vi genitals in the film Avatar to avoid any inadvertent displays induced, for example, by the quirks of the fabric rendering algorithms.

What movie is number one in the world?

Avatar 🙂

Check out the box office list below.

All-Time Worldwide Box Office

Rank Year Movie
1 2009 Avatar
2 2019 Avengers: Endgame
3 1997 Titanic
4 2015 Star Wars Ep. VII: The Force Awakens

Is Endgame better than Avatar?

Another childish question…  Over the weekend, James Cameron’s Avatar overtook Avengers: Endgame to recover its title as the highest-grossing picture of all time. The record was previously held by Avatar, which was re-released in China over the weekend before Endgame dethroned it in 2019.

What is the main point of Avatar?

The primary themes of James Cameron’s film Avatar, created and directed by him, are colonization and resistance to colonialism. The plot of the film is heavily influenced by the tale of the European colonization of non-European/indigenous peoples.

Avatar 2 Release Dates

Germany 14 December 2022
France 14 December 2022
Sweden 14 December 2022
Argentina 15 December 2022
Portugal 15 December 2022
Slovakia 15 December 2022
Turkey 16 December 2022
USA 16 December 2022

Also Known As (AKA)

Avatar 2 (2022)

(original title) Avatar 2
Argentina Avatar 2
Australia Avatar 2
Brazil Avatar 2
Canada (English title) Avatar 2
Croatia Avatar 2
France Avatar 2
India (English title) Avatar 2
Italy Avatar 2
Japan (Japanese title) アバター2
Kazakhstan Avatar 2
Lithuania Įsikūnijimas 2
Mexico Avatar 2
Russia Аватар 2
Spain Avatar 2
UK Avatar 2
USA Avatar 2
Uzbekistan Avatar 2

Avatar 2 (2022) Trailer

 

Screen Rant‘s video below has information on Avatar 2. Enjoy it!

Avatar 2: Behind The Scenes Secrets Revealed

About Jackson Tex

Jackson Tex is the editor of soctex.com. He covers movies, books, and series.

Check Also

Antim: The Final Truth (2021) - Soctex

Antim: The Final Truth (2021) Release Info, Review & Trailer

Antim: The Final Truth is a Hindi-language action thriller film directed by Mahesh Manjrekar and …

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *